sexta-feira, 18 de junho de 2004

James Madison, Russel Kirk e Edmund Burke versus Michael Ledeen

Escrevia James Madison:

"The Constitution expressly and exclusively vests in the Legislature the power of declaring a state of war . . . the power of raising armies . . . A delegation of such powers [to the President] would have struck, not only at the fabric of our Constitution, but at the foundation of all well organized and well checked governments. The separation of the power of declaring war from that of conducting it, is wisely contrived to exclude the danger of its being declared for the sake of its being conducted."

E porquê esta preocupação?

Dizia Madison:

"Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps, the most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops the germ of every other. War is the parent of armies; from these proceed debts and taxes; and armies, and debts, and taxes are the known instruments for bringing the many under the domination of the few. In war, too, the discretionary power of the Executive is extended; its influence in dealing out offices, honors, and emoluments is multiplied; and all the means of seducing the minds, are added to those of subduing the force, of the people. . . . [There is also an] inequality of fortunes, and the opportunities of fraud, growing out of a state of war, and . . . degeneracy of manners and of morals. . . . No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare. . ."

Nota: Só o Congresso Americano pode declarar guerras (a última vez que isso aconteceu foi na Segunda Grande Guerra, todas as posteriores terão sido anti-constitucionais? - pensemos sobre o "valor" das constituições escritas...).

Nels Stemm falando sobre Russel Kirk e Edmund Burke:

In his essay "The Essence of Conservatism" Russell Kirk defines a conservative as "a person who endeavors to conserve the best in our traditions and our institutions, reconciling that best with necessary reform from time to time."

For most of us our best traditions and institutions are private voluntary institutions that have developed through the course of time; family, church, local community and government, the ties of honest commerce that create common interest.

These are institutions that provide meaning and beauty in life but more than their benefits in themselves they serve as intermediary institutions, protecting our local liberties and community against encroachments by what Edmund Burke called the various "armed ideologies" of egalitarianism and militant socialism. Conservatism has set itself against innovation in government – big government – because its ultimate effect is to diminish these institutions, weakening the ultimate foundation of a free government; civil society.

Diz Nels Stemm:

"You will notice the quote above calls out for conserving our institutions, that subtle distinction is a major component of conservatism. American conservatism is rooted in American culture and history and can not be separated from it; conservatism seeks to guard our institutions and our culture against its enemies. This is why the Wilsonian impulses of the Bush administration are so contrary to true American conservatism, they profess that our values are "universal" rather than particular to us.

American mass democracy (not the founding intent of this country but that is another story) has a messianic mission, in the words of neoconservative theorist Michael Ledeen:

"Creative destruction is our middle name, both within our own society and abroad. We tear down the old order every day, from business to science, literature, art, architecture, and cinema to politics and the law. Our enemies have always hated this whirlwind of energy and creativity, which menaces their traditions (whatever they may be) and shames them for their inability to keep pace. Seeing America undo traditional societies, they fear us, for they do not wish to be undone. They cannot feel secure so long as we are there, for our very existence – our existence, not our politics – threatens their legitimacy. They must attack us in order to survive, just as we must destroy them to advance our historic mission."

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