quinta-feira, 29 de julho de 2004


"(...) Russia’s role has always been recognized as critical. The Austro-Serb Balkan conflict escalated into a European war because Russian leaders decided on 24-25 July to back Serbia. Recent scholarship indicates that the Russians supported Serbia in full recognition that this was almost certain to lead to war with Austria, and possibly with Germany as well.15 The czar and his ministers nevertheless made the decision to mobilize without understanding its military consequences for Germany.16
France has received less attention as its role has been regarded as secondary. Scholarly inquiry has focused on the extent to which French leaders strengthened Russian resolve in the Balkans, before 1914 and during the July crisis.17 Britain’s role in the crisis has been more controversial, and some scholars have argued that an earlier British commitment to support France might have encouraged Germany to restrain Austria.18 Recent scholarship suggests that Foreign Secretary Edward Grey went as far as he could in signaling his country’s intention to back France given the domestic constraints he faced, and that a British commitment might not have had the desired effect in any case.(...)"


Nota:  Se as causas e culpados (todas as partes envolvidas) pela guerra começam já a estar mais claramente percepcionadas, ainda poucos textos se concentram nas causas e culpados pela forma como acabou (os vencedores, com especial destaque para a entrada dos EUA) e que acabou por estabelecer as condições para a queda das monarquias, as repúblicas fascistas e comunistas, o nacionalismo, a Segunda Grande Guerra, os problemas no médio oriente, 50 anos de domínio comunista e a guerra fria, a social-democracia.

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