terça-feira, 21 de dezembro de 2004

William Gladstone

"Liberalism is trust of the people, tempered by prudence; conservatism, distrust of people, tempered by fear." -

PS: Gladstone foi mais um Liberal Inglês (a juntar a Lord Acton) que apoiava a secessão dos Estados Confederados (Sulistas) na "Guerra Civil" americana.

Via Wikipedia:

William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). He was a notable political reformer, known for his populist speeches, and was for many years the main political rival of Benjamin Disraeli.

As Chancellor he pushed to extend the free trade liberalisations in the 1840s and worked to reduce public expenditure. He also took his moral and religious ideals into politics (he was a Nonconformist), but in a progressive manner later called Gladstonian Liberalism.He was re-elected for the University of Oxford in 1847 and became a constant critic of Lord Palmerston.

Gladstone became Chancellor of the Exchequer till 1855 and unsuccessfully tried to abolish the income tax.

Gladstone left the Conservatives and joined the newly formed Liberal Party. As Chancellor, he made a controversial speech which seemed to support the independence of the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.

Gladstonian Liberalism was characterised, in the 1860s and 1870s, by a number of policies intended to improve individual liberty and loosen political and economic restraints. First was the minimization of public expenditure, on the basis that the economy and society were best helped by allowing people to spend as they saw fit. Secondly, a foreign policy aimed at promoting peace helped reduced expenditure and taxation as well as help trade. Thirdly, there was the reform of government institutions or laws that prevented people from acting freely to improve themselves.

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