segunda-feira, 8 de novembro de 2004

Anti-federalismos: Secessão

Enquanto os federalistas usam a estratégia da "inevitabilidade" e de como se "já abdicamos de parte da soberania mais vale abdicar de mais ainda", e se preparam para (sem falar no assunto) se sentirem legitimados por referendos de maioria simples e talvez até fraca participação...


The Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination (LISD) supports research, publication, and teaching on self-determination, state sovereignty, boundaries, and autonomy; related sociocultural, ethnic, and religious issues; aspects of international law and international politics; strategic, political, economic, and economic-industrial matters; and the role and character of international organizations such as the UN, the OSCE, and other regional organizations and NGOs in search of greater autonomy or independence. The program is funded through the generosity of H.S.H. Prince Hans Adam II of Liechtenstein(...).

Podem perguntar como um Principado e o seu Príncipe se lembram de financiar tal tema, mas a verdade é que o Liechtenstein tem expressamente declarado o direito de Secessão na sua Constituição.

Agora, em teoria política, como justificar maiorias qualificadas para os Parlamentos e afins para determinados assuntos, e querer impôr que um plebescito de maioria simples possa declarar a federalização de uma Nação?

2. Na "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy"


Until quite recently secession has been a neglected topic among philosophers. Two factors may explain why philosophers have now begun to turn their attention to secession. First, in the past decade there has been a great increase not only in the number of attempted secessions, but also in successful secessions, and philosophers may simply be reacting to this new reality, attempting to make normative sense of it. Second, in the same decade the idea that there is a strong case for some form of self-government for groups presently contained within states has gained ground. Once one begins to take seriously the case for special group rights for minorities -- especially if these include rights of self-government -- it is difficult to avoid the question of whether some such groups may be entitled to full independence.

1. Philosophical Issues of Secession
2. Theories of the Right to Secede
3. Secession and the Philosophy of International Law
4. Conclusion
Other Internet Resources
Related Entries

Na conclusão, podemos ler a última das questões: "what gives a state a valid claim to its territory?"

Philosophical work on secession falls into three main categories:

(1) attempts to develop an account of the moral right to secede (understood either as a claim-right or as a mere liberty)
(2) investigations of the compatibility or incompatibility of secession with constitutionalism, and (3) attempts to determine what posture international law should adopt concerning secession.

In each of these areas of inquiry, as well as in the connections among them, exploration of the moral issues of secession provides a powerful lens through which to examine some of the most important issues of moral-political theory, including perhaps the most fundamental issue of all: what gives a state a valid claim to its territory?"

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